OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of perioperative antibiotic use at time of myomectomy and associated risk of infectious outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all women who underwent any route of myomectomy from 2009 to 2016 at two academic hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Cases involving chromopertubation or conversion to hysterectomy were excluded from further analysis. Medical records were queried for the use or nonuse of perioperative antibiotics, as well as baseline patient factors and perioperative outcomes. Statistical analyses included univariate comparisons between treatment groups, as well as multivariable logistic regression analyses of infectious morbidity controlling for patient age, route of surgery, presence of high-risk factors, any intraoperative complication, myoma weight, and entrance into the endometrial cavity. Matched cohort analysis also was performed to confirm findings in the setting of underlying differences between groups. RESULTS: A total of 1,211 patients were included in the myomectomy cohort, 92.7% of whom received perioperative antibiotics at the time of surgery. Demographic characteristics were similar between the group that received and the group that did not receive antibiotics. The cases with antibiotic use were associated with longer operative times, higher estimated blood loss, and greater myoma burden. No difference was noted with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications. Surgical site infection occurred more commonly in the group that did not receive antibiotics (2.9% vs 6.8% in the antibiotic and no-antibiotic groups, respectively; effect size 0.43, 95% CI 0.18-0.97 P=.04), representing a nearly fourfold increase in odds of any surgical site infection in the absence of perioperative antibiotic use (adjusted odds ratio 3.77, 95% CI 1.30-10.97, P=.015). CONCLUSION: A high frequency of antibiotic use was noted at time of myomectomy, despite lack of clear evidence supporting the practice. Patients who received perioperative antibiotics had fewer postoperative infectious outcomes and, in particular, experienced a lower incidence of surgical site infection.
OBJECTIVE: To develop an effective, low-cost, single-visit cervical screening strategy incorporating a modified Pap test and visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine for low-income settings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort trial. Two low-income Muslim Uyghur communities in China's far western Kashi Prefecture served as pilot and validation study sites, respectively, and 4,049 women (aged 30-59 years) were screened. The conventional Pap test was modified using a cotton swab to collect cervical cells without scraping the cervix using an Ayre spatula, allowing visual inspection with acetic acid (and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine if visual inspection with acetic acid was negative) to be performed in a single visit. Results from both tests were available within 1-2 hours. Women positive for either or both underwent sameday biopsy that was shipped by a courier service to a central pathology laboratory. RESULTS: Single-visit screening incorporating both a modified Pap test and visual inspection achieved a sensitivity of 96.0% (95% CI 91.6-100), which was superior to Pap testing (76%, 95% CI 66.3-85.7; P<.001) or visual inspection with acetic acid-visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (48%, 95% CI 36.7-59.3; P<.001) alone in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or worse lesions. Rapid interpretation of both diagnostic procedures facilitated efficient same-day biopsy that achieved a negative predictive value of 98.2% in detecting CIN 2 or worse lesions. The increased sensitivity and minimized loss of follow-up allowed this approach to identify an extremely high prevalence of CIN 1 (2,741/100,000, 95% CI 2,238-3,245/100,000), CIN 2 or 3 (1,457/100,000, 95% CI 1,088-1,826/100,000), and cervical cancer (395/100,000, 95% CI 202-589/100,000) among these underscreened, at-risk women. CONCLUSION: Single-visit cervical screening with both a modified Pap test and visual inspection has greater sensitivity to detect high-grade CINs, reduces loss of follow-up, and could be an efficient low-cost strategy for low-resource settings.