BACKGROUND: The relationship between OSA and glucose metabolism remains controversial. This retrospective study investigated the relationship between OSA and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a clinic cohort of Chinese adults in Hong Kong, and the effect of long-term CPAP treatment. METHODS: Data for diagnosis of incident T2D and CPAP usage were obtained from the territory-wide electronic health administration system and records of protocolized evaluation of CPAP adherence at the sleep clinic. The relationship between baseline OSA and incident T2D and the effect of CPAP therapy were examined by Cox regression models. Risk of incident T2D over the continuum of apnea-hypopnea index was examined with cubic spline analysis. RESULTS: Of 1,206 subjects with overnight sleep studies and clinical assessment in 2006 through 2013, 152 developed diabetes (median follow-up, 7.3 years). In fully adjusted models, untreated moderate or patients with severe OSA had higher risk of developing diabetes, hazard ratios 2.01 (95% CI, 1.06-3.81) and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.40-4.93) respectively, with a trend to plateau in those with severe OSA. No interaction was demonstrated between OSA and obesity. Regular CPAP use, which was attained in about one-third of subjects with moderate-severe OSA, was associated with reduction of diabetes incidence from 3.41 to 1.61 per 100 person-years, and of adjusted hazard risk to that of non-OSA. CONCLUSIONS: OSA severity independently predicted incident diabetes. Regular long-term CPAP use was associated with reduced risk of incident T2D, after adjustment for various baseline metabolic risk factors and subsequent body weight change.
BACKGROUND: To determine the utility of apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM)/CD5L as a potentially novel biomarker of morbidity and mortality in patients with sepsis who are critically ill. METHODS: There were 150 adult patients with sepsis studied. Serum AIM levels on day of ICU admission were determined and compared with survival status and organ dysfunction. For validation, 60 adult patients with sepsis from another medical center were studied. Furthermore, the role of AIM as an outcome predictor in 51 pediatric patients with sepsis was investigated. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort of adult patients, patients with sepsis had markedly increased admission levels of serum AIM compared with ICU control subjects and healthy control subjects. Higher serum AIM levels at admission were significantly associated with higher Sequential (sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. On day of ICU admission, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for AIM level association with 28-day mortality was 0.86, higher than the AUC for SOFA (0.77), procalcitonin (0.73), lactate (0.67), IL-27 (0.65), and C-reactive protein (0.55). Patients with sepsis with higher admission levels of AIM (> 543.66 ng/mL) had significantly increased 28- day mortality compared with those with lower AIM levels (<= 543.66 ng/mL). The association between admission levels of AIM and 28-day mortality was confirmed in the validation cohort of adult patients. In another cohort of pediatric patients with sepsis, the AUC for AIM level association with 28-day mortality was 0.82. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating AIM levels at admission were markedly increased in patients with sepsis, which can serve as a novel prognostic biomarker for predicting mortality.
BACKGROUND: The anatomic location of small airways, the distribution of airway cartilage, and their correlation with ageing have not been well elucidated. The objective of this article was to explore the morphologic characteristics of small airways in vivo, and how airway structural changes correlate with age using endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT). METHODS: We recruited 112 subjects with peripheral pulmonary nodules. Participants underwent CT scan, spirometry, and EB-OCT measurements. We measured the airway internal diameter, the inner area (Ai), the airway wall area percentage (Aw%), and the thickness of airway cartilage. EB-OCT airway structural characteristics at different age intervals were analyzed, and the association between airway morphology and age was evaluated. RESULTS: Of the small airways, 47.3% originated from the seventh generation of bronchi. Cartilage was uniformly present in the third to sixth generation of bronchi, despite a decreasing proportion of cartilage from the seventh to ninth generation of bronchi (92.4%, 54.5%, and 26.8%, respectively). The thickness of airway cartilage progressively decreased with older age. In subjects 40 to 54 years of age, Ai from the third to sixth generation correlated positively with age (r = 0.577, P < .001). Both Ai from the third to sixth generation and Ai from the seventh to ninth generation correlated negatively with age in subjects 55 to 69 years of age (r = -0.374, P = .021 and r = -0.410, P = .011). Aw% from the third to sixth generation and Aw% from the seventh to ninth generation did not correlate significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS: Small airways are mainly located at the seventh generation, where cartilaginous structures are present despite reduced distribution in more distal airways, and the thickness decreased in older age. Reduction in luminal area of mediumto-small airways might be the morphologic changes associated with ageing (ie, > 55 years of age).
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on VTE risk and prophylaxis in Chinese inpatients. The Identification of Chinese Hospitalized Patients' Risk Profile for Venous Thromboembolism-2 (DissolVE-2), a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study, was therefore designed to investigate prevalence of VTE risks and evaluate VTE prophylaxis implementation compliant with the latest prophylaxis guidelines (American College of Chest Physicians [CHEST], 9th edition). METHODS: Adults admitted (>= 72 h) to 60 urban, tertiary Chinese hospitals due to acute medical conditions or surgery from March to September 2016 were assessed for VTE risk. Risk assessments were made by using the Padua Prediction Scoring or Caprini Risk Assessment model, risk factors, and prophylaxis based on the CHEST guidelines, 9th edition. RESULTS: A total of 13,609 patients (6,986 surgical and 6,623 medical) were analyzed. VTE risk in surgical inpatients was categorized as low (13.9%; 95% CI, 13.1-14.7), moderate (32.7%; 95% CI, 31.6-33.8), and high (53.4%; 95% CI, 52.2-54.6); risk in medical patients was categorized as low (63.4%; 95% CI, 62.2-64.6) and high (36.6%; 95% CI, 35.4-37.8). Major risk factors in surgical and medical patients were major open surgery (52.6%) and acute infection (42.2%), respectively. Overall rate of any prophylaxis and appropriate prophylactic method was 14.3% (19.0% vs 9.3%) and 10.3% (11.8% vs 6.0%) in surgical and medical patients. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of hospitalized patients reported VTE risk and low rate of CHEST-recommended prophylaxis. The data highlight the insufficient management of VTE risk and show the great potential for improving physicians' awareness and current practices across China.
BACKGROUND: VTE has emerged as a major public health problem. However, data on VTE burden in China are seldom reported. METHODS: This study collected data on patients with a principal diagnosis of VTE, pulmonary embolism (PE), or DVT by using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, from 90 hospitals across China. The trends in hospitalization rates, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and comorbidities from 2007 to 2016 were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 105,723 patients with VTE were identified. For patients with VTE, the age-and sex-adjusted hospitalization rate increased from 3.2 to 17.5 per 100,000 population, and in-hospital mortality decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% (P < .001). The mean LOS declined from 14 to 11 days (P < .001). In addition, the data in 2016 showed that the hospitalization rate of VTE was higher in elderly male patients (male patients vs female patients, 155.3 vs 125.4 per 100,000 population in patients aged >= 85 years; P < .001) and in northern China (north vs south, 18.4 vs 13.4 per 100,000 population; P < .001). Higher mortality rates were found in patients with cancer and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores > 2. Similar trends were also observed in patients with PE and those with DVT. The hospitalization rate in China was much lower than that of the United States or selected sites in Canada and Europe, the LOS was much longer, and the in-hospital mortality rates were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The hospitalization rates of VTE increased steadily, and the mortality declined. This study provides important information on the disease burden of VTE in China.
BACKGROUND: Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) has been described as supplying the combined advantages of nasal CPAP (NCPAP) and HFOV. However, its effect on preterm infants needs to be further elucidated. Our objective was to assess whether NHFOV could reduce intubation and PCO2 levels as compared with NCPAP during the postextubation phase in preterm infants. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, controlled trial, and it was registered at clinicaltrials. gov (NCT03140891) and conducted between May 2017 and May 2018. Ventilated infants born at less than 37 weeks' gestational age and ready to be extubated were included and randomized to either the NHFOV or NCPAP group. Primary outcomes were the incidence of reintubation within 1 week and the PCO2 level within 6 h. RESULTS: A total of 206 preterm infants were included. Of them, 127 (61.7%) were diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome, 53 (25.7%) with ARDS, and 26 (12.6%) with both respiratory distress syndrome and ARDS. Comparing with NCPAP, NHFOV significantly reduced the reintubation rate (16: 87 vs 35: 68; 95% CI, 0.18-0.70; P =.002), especially in the subgroup with a gestational age of <= 32 weeks (12: 34 vs 25: 20; 95% CI, 0.12-0.68; P =.004). The PCO2 level was also significant lower in the NHFOV group (49.6 +/- 8.7 vs 56.9 +/- 9.9; 95% CI, -9.95 to -4.80; P = <.001). Moreover, NHFOV significantly reduced the reintubation rate in preterm infants with ARDS (10: 33 vs 21: 15; 95% CI, 0.08-0.57; P =(.)002). CONCLUSIONS: NHFOV was shown to be superior to NCPAP in avoiding reintubation, especially in very preterm infants and those infants diagnosed with ARDS.
BACKGROUND: Although recent evidence suggests that OSA treatment may cause weight gain, the long-term effects of CPAP on weight are not well established. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of the Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Endpoints (SAVE) study, a multicenter, randomized trial of CPAP plus standard care vs standard care alone in adults with a history of cardiac or cerebrovascular events and moderate to severe OSA. Participants with weight, BMI, and neck and waist circumferences measured at baseline and during follow-up were included. Linear mixed models were used to examine sex-specific temporal differences, and a sensitivity analysis compared high CPAP adherers ($ 4 h per night) with propensity-matched control participants. RESULTS: A total of 2,483 adults (1,248 in the CPAP group and 1,235 in the control group) were included (mean 6.1 +/- 1.5 measures of weight available). After a mean follow-up of 3.78 years, there was no difference in weight change between the CPAP and control groups, for male subjects (mean [95% CI] between-group difference, 0.07 kg [-0.40 to 0.54]; P = .773) or female subjects (mean [95% CI] between-group difference, -0.14 kg [-0.37 to 0.09]; P = .233). Similarly, there were no significant differences in BMI or other anthropometric measures. Although male participants who used CPAP >= 4 h per night gained slightly more weight than matched male control subjects without CPAP (mean difference, 0.38 kg [95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73]; P = .031), there were no between-group differences in other anthropometric variables, nor were there any differences between female high CPAP adherers and matched control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term CPAP use in patients with comorbid OSA and cardiovascular disease does not result in clinically significant weight change.