The study was aimed to compare the satiating effect of various protein hydrolysates in rats and examine the underlying mechanism associated with the satiety hormones. Food intake and portal satiety hormone levels were measured in rats. Enteroendocrine cell-lines were employed to study the direct effect of protein hydrolysates on gut hormone secretions. The results showed that oral preload of wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) suppressed food intake greater and longer than other hydrolysates. The portal peptide-YY levels in WGH-treated rats at 2 h and 3 h were higher than those in control-and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LAH)-treated rats. In a distal enteroendocrine cell model, WGH more potently stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion than LAH, and the effect was largely enhanced by pepsin/pancreatin digestion of WGH. These results suggest WGH is potent in activating enteroendocrine cells to release satiety hormones leading to the prolonged suppression of food intake.
This study aims to investigate the correlation between the ability of L. acidophilus to modulate miRNA expression and prevent Th17-dominated beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) allergy. In vitro immunomodulation was evaluated by measuring splenocyte proliferation, Th17-related immune response and miRNA expression in beta-Lg-sensitized splenocytes cultured with live L. acidophilus. Next, the allergic mouse model was used to evaluate anti-allergy capability of lactobacilli. The beta-Lg challenge led to induction of up-regulation of miR-146a, miR-155, miR-21 and miR-9 expression in both in vivo and in vitro, along with increased Th17-related cytokine levels and mRNA expression of ROR.t and IL-17. However, treatment of live L. acidophilus significantly suppressed hypersensitivity responses and Th17 cell differentiation. Moreover, administration of live L. acidophilus reduced expression of four miRNAs, especially miR-146a and miR-155. In addition, the decreased expression of the miRNAs in the spleen of the L. acidophilus-treated group was closely associated with decrease of IL-17 and ROR gamma t mRNA expression.
Gibberellins (GAs) are a family of plant hormones that are important to multiple aspects of plant growth and development, especially stem elongation. A PSRK2 was obtained through screening and identifying RLK dominant negative mutants. Phenotype of the loss-of-function mutants, psrk2-DN and psrk2-RNAi, showed that PSRK2 could influence the length of the uppermost and fourth internodes, indicating that PSRK2 might regulate cell division in the intercalary meristems and/or cell elongation in the internodes. Moreover, the expression pattern showed that PSRK2 was strongly expressed in the joined-nodes after the start-up of reproductive growth, but undetectable in leaves. PSRK2 expression was also found to be induced by GA(3), and PSRK2 was involved in GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells, and PSRK2 influence the relative length of the second leaf sheaths in seedling stage. These results indicate PSRK2 is a component of GA signaling pathway that controls stem elongation by negatively regulating GA responses.
RT-qPCR has been widely used for gene expression analysis in recent years. The accuracy of this technique largely depends on the selection of suitable reference genes. In order to facilitate gene expression analysis in wild and cultivated Cannabis, the expression stability of seven candidate reference genes (ACT2, 18S rRNA, GAPDH, UBQ, TUB, PP2A and EF1 alpha) were assessed in leaves samples of different development stages and different organs of both wild and cultivated Cannabis in the present study. Their expression stabilities were evaluated through three software packages (GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper). Results showed that UBQ and EF1 alpha were the highly ranked genes in different leaves samples, and PP2A was the most stable reference gene in different organs, while GAPDH was the least stable one. And the validation of the reference genes selected was further confirmed by the expression patterns of MDS and OLS.
We isolated a novel lectin (Artocarpus nitidus subsp. lingnanensis lectin, ALL) from Artocarpus nitidus subsp. lingnanensis and showed its mitogenic activities. In this study, we determined the amino acid sequence of ALL by cDNA sequencing. ALL cDNA (933bp) contains a 657-bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a protein with 218 amino acids. ALL shares high sequence similarities with Jacalin and Morniga G and belongs to jacalin-related lectin family. We also examined the antitumor activity of ALL using Raji, a human B-lymphoma cell line. ALL exhibits a strong binding affinity to cell membrane, which can be effectively inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). ALL inhibits Raji cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner through apoptosis, evidenced by morphological changes, phosphatidylserine externalization, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, Bcl-2 down-regulation, and caspase-3 activation. We further showed that the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways is required for the pro-apoptotic activity of ALL.
Quercetin (QT) is a plant polyphenol with various pharmacological properties. However, the low water solubility limits its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, QT-loaded sodium taurocholate-Pluronic P123 (QT-loaded ST/P123) mixed micelles were developed and characterized, and the effect of the formulation on improving the water solubility of QT was investigated. QT-loaded ST/P123 mixed micelles were prepared by thin film hydration-direct dissolution and optimized by uniform design. The optimal formulation possessed high drug loading (12.6%) and entrapment efficiency (95.9%) in small (16.20nm) spherically-shaped micelles. A low critical micelle concentration indicated that the micelles were stable, and they showed a sustained release pattern, as determined in vitro in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic evaluation showed the C-max and AUC(0-24) were 1.8-fold and 1.6-fold higher than the QT suspension. The present results indicate that QT-loaded ST/P123 micelles are potential candidates to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of QT.
Gastric cancer is a common malignancy with high mortality. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) zinc finger antisense (ZFAS)1 is upregulated in gastric cancer specimens compared with the para-carcinoma tissues. The silencing of ZFAS1 inhibited the growth, proliferation, cell cycle progress, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and enhanced the sensitivity to cis-platinum or paclitaxel in SGC7901 cells, as evidenced by the expression changes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, Cyclin B1, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-14. The ZFAS1 also activated the Wnt/-catenin signaling. Subsequently, the ZFAS1 knockdown-induced the inhibition of migration, invasion, EMT and resistance to chemotherapeutic reagens was reversed by the overexpression of -catenin. In summary, the silencing of ZFAS1 inhibited the growth, proliferation, cell cycle progress, migration, invasion, EMT and chemotherapeutic tolerance by blocking the Wnt/-catenin signaling in gastric cancer cells.
Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight proteins with high Cys content and high metal-chelating ability. CdMT and CuMT subfamilies present different characteristics in Tetrahymena. To explore the effect of the cysteine arrangement and sequence length of MTs for binding different metal ions, MTT1, truncated MTT1 (TM1), MTT2, and truncated MTT2 (TM2) were expressed in E. coli. The half-maximal inhibiting concentrations (IC50) of Cd2+ and Cu+ for the recombinant strains were different. Furthermore, E. coli cells expressing MTT1 and TM1 exhibited higher accumulating ability for Cd2+ than cells expressing MTT2 and TM2. However, the opposite is true for Cu+. The binding ability of the different recombinant proteins to Cd2+ and Cu+ were also different. MTT1 and truncated mutant TM1 were the preference for Cd2+, whereas MTT2 and truncated mutant TM2 were the preference for Cu+ coordination. These results showed that metal ion tolerance and accumulation ability not only depended on cysteine arrangement pattern but also on sequence length of MT in Tetrahymena.
To investigate the regulation of metallothionein genes (HsMTs) of Hyriopsis schlegelii, 1,121-bp and 1,270-bp regions of the HsMT1 and HsMT2 promoters were cloned and analyzed, respectively. The two promoters shared partially conserved features and possessed distinct characteristics such as the number or position of metal response elements (MREs). Further analysis of the HsMT1 and HsMT2 promoters was performed by the reporter assay using the luciferase gene. Both promoters were activated by various metals, and presented different levels of metal ions inducibility in human hepatoblastoma cells. Deletion mutant assays demonstrated that both the longest promoter regions achieved the maximum inducibility, and the metal inducibility was dependent on the presence of the MRE in HsMT1 and the distal MRE in HsMT2. In addition, we cloned a putative metal responsive transcription factor (hereby designated as HsMTF-like) and studied its effect on HsMTs expression in human hepatoblastoma cells. An in vivo assay demonstrated that HsMTF-like activates basal HsMTs transcription level, and the MRE in the HsMTs promoter mediates this activation process. Moreover, this basal transcription level can be further boosted by zinc treatment. In conclusion, the regulation mechanism for MT activation in H. schlegelii should be evolutionarily conserved.
The drumstick tree has traditionally been used as foodstuff and fodder in several countries. Due to its high nutritional value and good biomass production, interest in this plant has increased in recent years. It has therefore become important to rapidly and accurately evaluate drumstick quality. In this study, we addressed the optimization of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyze crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, iron (Fe), and potassium (K) in a variety of drumstick accessions (N=111) representing different populations, cultivation programs, and climates. Partial least-squares regression with internal cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. The calibration statistics for these fodder-related chemical components suggest that NIRS can predict these parameters in a wide range of drumstick types with high accuracy. The NIRS calibration models developed in this study will be useful in predicting drumstick forage quality for these five quality parameters.
Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) K25 is a probiotic strain isolated from Tibetan kefir. Previous studies showed that this exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain was antimicrobial active and cold tolerant. These functional traits were evidenced by complete genome sequencing of strain K25 with a circular 3,175,846-bp chromosome and six circular plasmids, encoding 3365 CDSs, 16 rRNA genes and 70 tRNA genes. Genomic analysis of L. plantarum K25 illustrates that this strain contains the previous reported mechanisms of probiotic functionality and cold tolerance, involving plantaricins, lysozyme, bile salt hydrolase, chaperone proteins, osmoprotectant, oxidoreductase, EPSs and terpenes. Interestingly, strain K25 harbors more genes that function in defense mechanisms, and lipid transport and metabolism, in comparison with other L. plantarum strains reported. The present study demonstrates the comprehensive analysis of genes related to probiotic functionalities of an EPS-producing L. plantarum strain based on whole genome sequencing.
Onconase (ONC) as a novel anti-tumor drug has a significant killing effect on a variety of tumor cells. Drug delivery system mediated by transferrin (TF) and TF receptor (TfR), which can significantly increase the amount of drug uptake in the tumor cells, enhance the initiative target efficiency of drugs and reduce its toxic side effects. It has been widely used in drug delivery and clinical trials. In this study, the rONC-TFn was expressed in Escherichia coli by linking ONC with the N-terminal domain of TF (TFn). ELISA and competitive binding analysis demonstrated that rONC-TFn can bind to TfR. The rONC-TFn protein showed much higher cytotoxicity to the cultured HepG2 and Hela cells than rONC. These results suggested that the N-terminal domain protein of TF promoted the tumor targeting of ONC, and thus the rONC-TFn fusion protein may be further developed as a potential targeted anti-tumor drug.
This study investigated the effect of transcriptional gene silencing of the heparanase gene on standard gallbladder carcinoma cells (GBC-SD). The miRNAs targeting the promoter region and coding region of the heparanase gene were designed and synthesized. We transfected four recombinant miRNA vectors into GBC-SD. We performed the wound healing assays and invasion assays. The result shows that the heparanase expression was significantly decreased by recombinant vectors in transfected GBC-SD cells (p<0.01), of which pmiR-Hpa-2 showed best interference effect (p<0.05). The penetrated and migrating cells numbers and adherence rate of GBC-SD cells were significantly decreased by pmiR-Hpa-2 (p<0.05).
Sequence variation in a microRNA (miRNA) seed region can influence its biogenesis and effects on target mRNAs; however, in mammals, few seed region mutations leading to functional alterations have been reported to date. Here, we report the identification of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with functional consequence located in the seed region of porcine miR-378. In vitro analysis of this rs331295049 A17G SNP showed significantly up-regulated expression of the mature miR-378 (miR-378/G). In silico target prediction indicated that the SNP would modulate secondary structure and result in functional loss affecting>85% of the known target genes of the wild-type miR-378 (miR-378/A), and functional gain affecting>700 new target genes, and dual-luciferase reporter assay verified this result. This report of a SNP in the seed region of miR-378 leads to functional alteration and indicates the potential for substantive functional consequences to the molecular physiology of a mammalian organism.
Marine pearl production is directly influenced by the growth speed of Pinctada fucata martensii. However, the slow growth rate of this organism remains the main challenge in aquaculture production. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), an important receptor of tyrosine kinases in animals, plays versatile functions in development, growth and tissue regeneration. In this study, we described the characteristic and function of an EGFR gene identified from P. f. martensii (PmEGFR). PmEGFR possesses a typical EGFR structure and is expressed in all studied tissues, with the highest expression level in adductor muscle. PmEGFR expression level is significantly higher in the fast-growing group than that in the slow-growing one. Correlation analysis represents that shell height and shell weight show positive correlation with PmEGFR expression (p<0.05), and total weight and tissue weight exhibit positive correlation with it (p<0.01). This study indicates that PmEGFR is a valuable functional gene associated with growth traits.