Background. A variety of complex drug regimens are offered to kidney transplant recipients after transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the behavioral and physiological outcomes of pharmaceutical care in this population. Methods. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted, which collected and categorized kidney transplant recipients according to pharmaceutical care. In the IR group, patients had received irregular pharmaceutical care after transplantation, and in the RE group, patients had received regular intervention. Intervention included face-to-face interview, checkup for laboratory examinations, discovery of drug-related problems, and pharmaceutical consultation. Baseline knowledge for self-care was tested for patients in both groups. Correct concepts and medication guidance were consistently provided to enable patients to understand the importance of rejection prevention and knowledge for medication and renal care after transplantation. After 12 months, the same test was used to evaluate the outcomes for pharmaceutical care and a satisfaction questionnaire was used to assess for pharmacy service. Results. The study results revealed that patients in the RE group possessed better knowledge for self-care (P < .001); however, the differences at 12 months became insignificant (P = .72) after patients in the IR group had also received routine pharmaceutical care. Besides, serum creatinine level of the RE patients was stable without significant variation (P = .93), but it demonstrated a rising trend in IR patients (P < .01). Patients were greatly satisfactory with the intervention. Conclusions. A consistent post-transplantation pharmaceutical care service is effective to substantially improve knowledge of post-transplantation self-care. Pharmaceutical care should be started as early as possible during the pre-transplant period and continue in a long-term follow-up.