Ulcerative colitis is a type of chronic inflammation present in the intestines for which the aetiology is not yet clear. The current therapies for ulcerative colitis cannot be considered to be long-term management strategies due to their significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to identify an alternative therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis. The present study focused on the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus CGMCC 7282 and Clostridium butyricum CGMCC 7281. The roles of both single and combination of L. acidophilus CGMCC 7282 and C. butyricum CGMCC 7281 in ulcerative colitis were investigated in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced acute colitis (Th1-type colitis) in Sprague-Dawley rats and oxazolone-induced chronic colitis (Th2-type colitis) in BALB/c mice. The in vivo studies showed that the administration of L. acidophilus CGMCC 7282, C. butyricum CGMCC 7281 and L. acidophilus CGMCC 7282 plus C. butyricum CGMCC 7281 could reduce the Th1-type colitis as well as the Th2-type colitis, and the combination of the two strains exhibited the most notable effects, as indicated by the reduced mortality rates, the suppressed disease activity indices, the improved body weights, the reduced colon weight/colon length and colon weight/body weight ratios, and the improved gross anatomic characteristics and histological features (ameliorations of neutrophil infiltration and ulceration in the colon). It was found that the alterations of the gut microbiome, the barrier function changing and the selected inflammation-related cytokines are observed in the ulcerative colitis rats/mice treated with L. acidophilus CGMCC 7282 and C. butyricum CGMCC 7281. The combination of L. acidophilus CGMCC 7282 plus C. butyricum CGMCC 7281 also exerted a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than either of the single strains alone in vitro. These findings provide evidence that the administration of L. acidophilus CGMCC 7282 plus C. butyricum CGMCC 7281 may be a promising therapy for ulcerative colitis.