Aims: Atherosclerosis is more prevalent in Asian population. This distinct etiology of stroke might disadvantage Asian patients when applying. mechanical thrombectomy (MT). The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MT in a cohort of Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke. due to large artery atherosclerosis (LAA). Methods and results: A total of 649 patients treated with MT were included. Patients were classified according to etiology of stroke as LAA and cardioembolism ones. Successful revascularization was defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) grade >= 2b. Favorable outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score <= 2 at 90 days. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors for functional outcomes. The patients with stroke of LAA etiology had significantly higher rate of favorable functional outcome (50.2% vs 36.5%, p < .001) and good collateral (grade of ASITN/SIRI: 2-3) (58.8% versus 43.2%, p < .001), and lower median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) (15.6 versus 18.2, p < .001), compared to patients with stroke of cardioembolism etiology. There was no significant difference in the rate of successful postprocedural mTICI between groups (84.5% versus 83.2%, p = .671). Rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (20.0% versus 11.7%, p = .004) and mortality (31.8% versus 18.8%, p < .001) within 3 months were notably higher in the cardioembolism group than that in the LAA group. Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy may be more efficacious in treating acute ischemic stroke of LAA etiology than that of cardioembolism etiology.