Ethnopharmacological relevance: According to ancient traditional Chinese medicine, Typhae Pollen (TP) is commonly used to treat fundus haemorrhage because it improves blood circulation. Aims of the study: This study evaluated the role of the main TP component, polysaccharides (TPP), on diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its possible mechanisms of inhibiting inflammation and improving blood circulation. Materials and methods: After successful establishment of a diabetic rat model, TPP was administered to diabetic rats for treatment, and the rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks. Retinal electrophysiology and ultrastructures were observed, and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were also measured. Changes in the retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunofluorescence. A mouse model of acute blood stasis was then established, and the effects of TPP on haemorheology were observed. The anti-inflammatory effect of TPP was analysed based on the changes in abdominal capillary permeability and the degree of auricle swelling in the mice. Results: In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DR rats, TPP (0.4 g/kg) treatment restored electrophysiology indexes and retinal ultrastructures, reduced serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels, decreased VEGF and bFGF expression in retinal tissues, and improved haemorheology indexes. Moreover, TPP reduced abdominal capillary permeability and relieved auricle swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: TPP treatment ameliorated DR by inhibiting inflammation and improving blood circulation.