Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation (JNER) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed online journal that aims to foster the publication of research work that results from cross-fertilization of the fields of neuroscience, biomedical engineering, and physical medicine & rehabilitation. During the past decade, we have witnessed profound changes in physical medicine & rehabilitation originated by advances in neuroscience and biomedical engineering. For example, imaging and neurological assessment methods have dramatically improved the management of patients with motor impairments; robotics and artificial muscle research have generated revolutionary concepts in orthotics and prosthetics; and advances in cortical recordings and the understanding of central nervous system mechanisms have changed the way clinicians look at movement disorders. These techniques and others have brought about, and will continue to give rise in the future to, dramatic advances in physical medicine & rehabilitation. JNER aims to provide a forum for researchers and clinicians interested in understanding the way neuroscience and biomedical engineering are continuing to reshape physical medicine & rehabilitation. As advances in neuroscience and biomedical engineering continue to generate new techniques, with tremendous impact in the field of physical medicine & rehabilitation, it becomes apparent that there is an urgent need for establishing an outlet for the intersection of these three research fields. JNER aims to provide such an outlet, hosting the introduction of new methods and the discussion of their clinical implications, and offering an opportunity to publish, in a timely manner, articles relevant to the cross-fertilization of neuroscience, biomedical engineering, and physical medicine & rehabilitation.