Recent Advances: Herein, we focus on the first step of this process, electrophile sensing. Electrophile sensing is typically a deceptively simple reaction between the thiol of a protein cysteine, of which there are around 200,000 in the human proteome, and a Michael acceptor, of which there are numerous flavors, including enals and enones. Recent data overall paint a picture that despite being a simple chemical reaction, electrophile sensing is a discerning process, showing labeling preferences that are often not in line with reactivity of the electrophile. Critical Issues: With a view to trying to decide what brings about highly electrophile-reactive protein cysteines, and how reactive these sensors may be, we discuss aspects of the thermodynamics and kinetics of covalent/noncovalent binding. Data made available by several laboratories indicate that it is likely that specific proteins exhibit highly stereo- and chemoselective electrophile sensing, which we take as good evidence for recognition between the electrophile and the protein before forming a covalent bond. Future Directions: We propose experiments that could help us gain a better and more quantitative understanding of the mechanisms through which sensing comes about. We further extoll the importance of performing more detailed experiments on labeling and trying to standardize the way we assess protein-specific electrophile sensing.
Recent Advances: Currently, the gold standard for cancer treatment is chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. However, the efficacy of these treatments varies across different cancer cells. It has been suggested that mitochondria may be at the center of these diverse responses. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in understanding distinct types of mitochondrial dysfunctions in cancer. Through investigations of underlying mechanisms, more effective treatment options are developed. Critical Issues: We summarize various mitochondria dysfunctions in cancer progression that have led to the development of therapeutic options. Current mitochondrial-targeted therapies and challenges are discussed. Future Directions: To address the "root" of cancer, utilization of mitochondrial-targeted therapy to target cancer stem cells may be valuable. Investigation of other areas such as mitochondrial trafficking may offer new insights into cancer therapy. Moreover, common antibiotics could be explored as mitocans, and synthetic lethality screens can be utilized to overcome the plasticity of cancer cells.
Recent Advances: Adaptive changes in the structure of cold-adapted proteins may occur at subunit interfaces, distant from the active site, thus producing energy changes associated with conformational transitions transmitted to the active site by allosteric modulation, valid also for monomeric proteins in which tertiary structural changes may play an essential role. Critical Issues: Despite efforts, the current experimental and computational methods still fail to produce general principles on protein evolution, since many changes are protein and species dependent. Environmental constraints or other biological cellular signals may override the ancestral information included in the structure of the protein, thus introducing inaccuracy in estimates and predictions on the evolutionary adaptations of proteins in response to cold adaptation. Future Directions: In this review, we describe the studies and approaches used to investigate stability and flexibility in the cold-adapted globins of the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. In fact, future research directions will be prescient on more detailed investigation of cold-adapted proteins and the role of fluctuations between different conformational states.
Recent Advances: HNO is emerging as a new entity with therapeutic advantages over its redox sibling, NO. The interests in the chemical, pharmacological, and biological characteristics of HNO have broadened our current understanding of its role in physiology and pathophysiology. Critical Issues: In particular, the experimental evidence suggests the therapeutic potential of HNO in tumor pharmacology, such as neuroblastoma, gastrointestinal tumor, ovarian, lung, and breast cancers. Indeed, HNO donors have been demonstrated to attenuate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. Future Directions: In this review, the generation and detection of HNO are outlined, and the roles of HNO in cancer progression are further discussed. We anticipate that the completion of this review might give novel insights into the roles of HNO in cancer pharmacology and open up a novel field of cancer therapy based on HNO.
Critical Issues: Although several hypotheses have been forwarded, the molecular mechanisms linking disrupted GLUT10 activity with arterial malformations are largely unknown. Recent Advances: The vascular and systemic manifestations and natural history of ATS patients have been largely delineated. GLUT10 was identified as an intracellular transporter of dehydroascorbic acid, which contributes to collagen and elastin cross-linking in the endoplasmic reticulum, redox homeostasis in the mitochondria, and global and gene-specific methylation/hydroxymethylation affecting epigenetic regulation in the nucleus. We revise here the current knowledge on ATS and the role of GLUT10 within the compartmentalization of ascorbate in physiological and diseased states. Future Directions: Centralization of clinical, treatment, and outcome data will enable better management for ATS patients. Establishment of representative animal disease models could facilitate the study of pathomechanisms underlying ATS. This might be relevant for other forms of vascular dysplasia, such as isolated aneurysm formation, hypertensive vasculopathy, and neovascularization. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Recent Advances: This review focuses on mechanisms utilized by mycobacteria to sense and respond to reductive stress. Importantly, exposure of Mtb cells to reductive stress leads to growth inhibition, altered metabolism, modulation of virulence, and drug tolerance. Mtb is equipped with thiol buffering systems of mycothiol and ergothioneine to protect itself from various redox stresses. These systems are complemented by thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase (TR) systems for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. A diverse array of sensors is used by Mycobacterium for monitoring its intracellular redox status. Upon sensing reductive stress, Mtb uses a flexible and robust metabolic system for its dissipation. Branched electron transport chain allows Mycobacterium to function with different terminal electron acceptors and modulate proton motive force to fulfill energy requirements under diverse scenarios. Interestingly, Mtb utilizes variations in the tricarboxylic cycle and a number of dehydrogenases to dissipate reductive stress. Upon prolonged exposure to reductive stress, Mtb utilizes biosynthesis of storage and virulence lipids as a dissipative mechanism. Critical Issues: The mechanisms utilized by Mycobacterium for sensing and tackling reductive stress are not well characterized. Future Directions: The precise role of thiol buffering and TR systems in neutralizing reductive stress is not well defined. Genetic systems that respond to metabolic reductive stress and thiol reductive stress need to be mapped. Genetic screens could aid in identification of such systems. Given that management of reductive stress is critical for both actively replicating and persister mycobacteria, an improved understanding of the mechanisms used by mycobacteria for dissipation of reductive stress may lead to identification of vulnerable choke points that could be targeted for killing Mtb in vivo.
Recent Advances: Natural isothiocyanates (ITCs), sulfur compounds typical of some botanical species, have long been investigated because of their intriguing pharmacological profile. Recently, the ITC moiety has been proposed as a new H2S-donor chemotype (with a l-cysteine-mediated reaction). Based on this recent discovery, we can clearly observe that almost all the effects of natural ITCs can be explained by the H2S release. Consistently, the ITC function was also used as an original H2S-releasing moiety for the design of synthetic H2S donors and original "pharmacological hybrids." Very recently, the chemical mechanism of H2S release, resulting from the reaction between l-cysteine and some ITCs, has been elucidated. Critical Issues: Available literature gives convincing demonstration that H2S is the real player in ITC pharmacology. Further, countless studies have been carried out on natural ITCs, but this versatile moiety has been used only rarely for the design of synthetic H2S donors with optimal drug-like properties. Future Directions: The development of more ITC-based synthetic H2S donors with optimal drug-like properties and selectivity toward specific tissues/pathologies seem to represent a stimulating and indispensable prospect of future experimental activities.
Recent Advances: Molecules such as Keap1/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, nuclear factor-kappaB, KRAS, kallistatin, gene associated with retinoic-interferon-induced mortality-19, and deregulated metabolic pathways are involved in ROS production in association with NADPH oxidase. Critical Issues: Therapeutic strategies targeting NADPH oxidases in ROS-driven cancers are not very effective due to its complex regulatory circuit. Tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs) viz. miR-34a, miR-137, miR-99a, and miR-21a-3p targeting NADPH oxidases are predominantly downregulated in ROS-driven cancers. miRNAs also regulate other cellular machineries such as Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and NMDA receptors involved in ROS production and consequently drug resistance. Here, we discuss the structure, function, and metabolic role of NADPH oxidase, NOX family protein-protein interaction, their association with other pathways, and NADPH oxidase alteration by miRNAs. Moreover, we also discuss and summarize studies on NADPH oxidase associated with various malignancies and their therapeutic implications. Future Directions: Targeting NADPH oxidases through miRNAs appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of ROS-driven cancer.
Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules generated in different subcellular sites or compartments, including endosomes via the NOX2-containing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase during an immune response and in mitochondria during cellular respiration. However, while endosomal NOX2 oxidase promotes innate inflammation to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, the role of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) has not been comprehensively investigated in the context of viral infections in vivo. Results: In this study, we show that pharmacological inhibition of mtROS, with intranasal delivery of MitoTEMPO, resulted in a reduction in airway/lung inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, viral titers, as well as overall morbidity and mortality in mice infected with IAV (Hkx31, H3N2). MitoTEMPO treatment also attenuated apoptotic and necrotic neutrophils and macrophages in airway and lung tissue. At an early phase of influenza infection, that is, day 3 there were significantly lower amounts of IL-1 beta protein in the airways, but substantially higher amounts of type I IFN-beta following MitoTEMPO treatment. Importantly, blocking mtROS did not appear to alter the initiation of an adaptive immune response by lung dendritic cells, nor did it affect lung B and T cell populations that participate in humoral and cellular immunity. Innovation/Conclusion: Influenza virus infection promotes mtROS production, which drives innate immune inflammation and this exacerbates viral pathogenesis. This pathogenic cascade highlights the therapeutic potential of local mtROS antioxidant delivery to alleviate influenza virus pathology.
Aims: Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detrimental to immune cellular functions that control pathogenic microbes; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the immunological consequences of increased ROS levels during acute bacterial infection. Results: We used a model of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) lung infection and superoxide dismutase 3-deficient (SOD3(-/-)) mice, as SOD3 is a major antioxidant enzyme that catalyses the dismutation of superoxide radicals. First, we observed that in vitro, macrophages from SOD3(-/-) mice generated excessive phagosomal ROS during acute bacterial infection. In vivo, there was a significant reduction in infiltrating neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced peribronchial and alveoli inflammation in SOD3(-/-) mice 2 days after Spn infection. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining revealed enhanced apoptosis in neutrophils from Spn-infected SOD3(-/-) mice. In addition, SOD3(-/-) mice showed an altered macrophage phenotypic profile, with markedly diminished recruitment of monocytes (CD11c(lo), CD11b(hi)) in the airways. Further investigation revealed significantly lower levels of the monocyte chemokine CCL-2, and cytokines IL-23, IL-1 beta, and IL-17A in Spn-infected SOD3(-/-) mice. There were also significantly fewer IL-17A-expressing gamma-delta T cells (gamma delta T cells) in the lungs of Spn-infected SOD3(-/-) mice. Innovation: Our data demonstrate that SOD3 deficiency leads to an accumulation of phagosomal ROS levels that initiate early neutrophil apoptosis during pneumococcal infection. Consequent to these events, there was a failure to initiate innate gamma delta T cell responses. Conclusion: These studies offer new cellular and mechanistic insights into how excessive ROS can regulate innate immune responses to bacterial infection.
Recent Advances: Reductive stress broadens our view of the importance of cellular redox homeostasis and the influences of an imbalanced redox niche on biological functions, including cell metabolism. Critical Issues: The distribution of cellular NAD(H), NADP(H), and GSH/GSH disulfide is highly compartmentalized. Understanding how cells coordinate different pools of redox couples under unstressed and stressed conditions is critical for a comprehensive view of redox homeostasis and stress. It is also critical to explore the underlying mechanisms of reductive stress and its biological consequences, including effects on energy metabolism. Future Directions: Future studies are needed to investigate how reductive stress affects cell metabolism and how cells adapt their metabolism to reductive stress. Whether or not NADH shuttles and mitochondrial nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase enzyme can regulate hypoxia-induced reductive stress is also a worthy pursuit. Developing strategies (e.g., antireductant approaches) to counteract reductive stress and its related adverse biological consequences also requires extensive future efforts.
Aims: Although the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is strictly aerobic and requires efficient supply of oxygen, it can survive long stretches of severe hypoxia. The mechanism responsible for this metabolic flexibility is unknown. We have investigated a novel mechanism by which hemoglobin O (HbO), operates and supports its host under oxygen stress. Results: We discovered that the HbO exists in a phospho-bound state in Mtb and remains associated with the cell membrane under hypoxia. Deoxy-HbO carries an autokinase activity that disrupts its dimeric assembly into monomer and facilitates its association with the cell membrane, supporting survival and adaptation of Mtb under low oxygen conditions. Consistent with these observations, deletion of the glbO gene in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin, which is identical to the glbO gene of Mtb, attenuated its survival under hypoxia and complementation of the glbO gene of Mtb rescued this inhibition, but phosphorylation-deficient mutant did not. These results demonstrated that autokinase activity of the HbO modulates its physiological function and plays a vital role in supporting the survival of its host under hypoxia. Innovation and Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the redox-dependent autokinase activity regulates oligomeric state and membrane association of HbO that generates a reservoir of oxygen in the proximity of respiratory membranes to sustain viability of Mtb under hypoxia. These results thus provide a novel insight into the physiological function of the HbO and demonstrate its pivotal role in supporting the survival and adaptation of Mtb under hypoxia.
Recent Advances: Redox systems biology has been applied to genome-scale models and large public datasets, challenged common conceptions, and provided new insights that complement reductionist approaches. Advances in public knowledge and user-friendly tools for proteome-wide annotation of cysteine sentinels can now leverage cysteine redox proteomics datasets to provide spatial, functional, and protein structural information. Critical Issues: Careful consideration of available analytical approaches is needed to broadly characterize the systems-level properties of redox signaling networks and be experimentally feasible. The cysteine redoxome is an informative focal point since it integrates many aspects of redox biology. The mechanisms and redox modules governing cysteine redox regulation, cysteine oxidation assays, proteome-wide annotation of the biophysical and biochemical properties of individual cysteines, and their clinical application are discussed. Future Directions: Investigating the cysteine redoxome at a systems level will uncover new insights into the mechanisms of selectivity and context dependence of redox signaling networks.
Aims: Cysteine persulfidation (also called sulfhydration or sulfuration) has emerged as a potential redox mechanism to regulate protein functions and diverse biological processes in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling. Due to its intrinsically unstable nature, working with this modification has proven to be challenging. Although methodological progress has expanded the inventory of persulfidated proteins, there is a continued need to develop methods that can directly and unequivocally identify persulfidated cysteine residues in complex proteomes. Results: A quantitative chemoproteomic method termed as low-pH quantitative thiol reactivity profiling (QTRP) was developed to enable direct site-specific mapping and reactivity profiling of proteomic persulfides and thiols in parallel. The method was first applied to cell lysates treated with NaHS, resulting in the identification of overall 1547 persulfidated sites on 994 proteins. Structural analysis uncovered unique consensus motifs that might define this distinct type of modification. Moreover, the method was extended to profile endogenous protein persulfides in cells expressing H2S-generating enzyme, mouse tissues, and human serum, which led to additional insights into mechanistic, structural, and functional features of persulfidation events, particularly on human serum albumin. Innovation and Conclusion: Low-pH QTRP represents the first method that enables direct and unbiased proteomic mapping of cysteine persulfidation. Our method allows to generate the most comprehensive inventory of persulfidated targets of NaHS so far and to perform the first analysis of in vivo persulfidation events, providing a valuable tool to dissect the biological functions of this important modification. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Recent Advances: Excessive production of RNS triggers nitric oxide (NO)-mediated post-translational modifications of proteins, such as S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues and nitration of tyrosine residues. Proteins thus affected impair mitochondrial metabolism, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagy in the nervous system. Critical Issues: Identification and better characterization of underlying molecular mechanisms for NO-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction will provide important insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we highlight recent discoveries concerning S-nitrosylation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1, and mitophagy-related proteins Parkin and phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase protein 1. We delineate signaling cascades affected by pathologically S-nitrosylated proteins that diminish mitochondrial function in neurodegenerative diseases. Future Directions: Further elucidation of the pathological events resulting from aberrant S-nitrosothiol or nitrotyrosine formation may lead to new therapeutic approaches to ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders.